Pathology Faculty Member

More information on...

  • Home
  • Training
  • Research
  • Clinical Services
  • Expert Consultation
  • Faculty
  • Contact Information:

    Experimental Pathology
    Yerkes Primate Research Center, Room 1026
    Atlanta, GA. 30329
    404-727-8587 Phone

    For an expert Pathology consultation,
    or to send a specimen, call:


    Eric Hunter, PhD

    HIV Pathogenesis

    Pathology & Laboratory Medicine

    Pathology Faculty Photo

    Other Appointments/Positions

    Professor of Microbiology and Immunology, Emory University

    Senior Scientist Co-Director, Emory Center for AIDS Research, Emory University

    Co-Director for Basic and Translational Science, Emory Center for AIDS Research, Emory University

    Pathology Division(s):
    Experimental Pathology

    Email Address:


    B.Sc. (Honors)   Birmingham University, Birmingham, England Field of Study- Bacteriology, 1966 - 1969

    Ph.D.   Imperial Cancer Research Fund & Brunel University of England--- Field of Study - Tumor Immunology, 1969 - 1972

    Postdoctoral Fellow   Postdoctoral Fellow, University of Southern California, Los Angeles-- Field of Study - RNA TUmor Virus, 1972 - 1976

    Research Interests:

    - Molecular Biology of HIV and other Retroviruses
    Research in my laboratory centers on the replication and pathogenesis of retroviruses, with a particular focus on the development of novel therapeutic and vaccine approaches to HIV. Using a model system based on the primate retrovirus Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (M-PMV), we are studying the viral-host interactions that are necessary for assembly of virions. These studies have identified unique insights into the mechanisms the virus employs for intracellular targeting of components necessary for the assembly and release of infectious virions.

    - HIV-1 Glycoprotein-mediated Entry
    Over the past several years, our laboratory has characterized the biosynthesis and transport of the HIV-1 glycoprotein (Env), and has identified protein domains critical for fusion and entry of the virus. Our current studies focus on the membrane-spanning component of the Env complex, gp41, which not only acts as the membrane fusion machine for the virus, but also targets Env to the site of virus assembly. These studies utilize molecular genetics approaches to dissect out structure-function relationships within the protein, with the goal of identifying new therapeutic targets for HIV-1.

    - Heterosexual Transmission of HIV-1
    Employing knowledge and technology gained in the molecular characterization of the HIV Env complex and its role in membrane fusion, we have embarked on studies in Rwanda and Zambia aimed at defining, at a molecular level, the nature of the virus that establishes infection following heterosexual transmission. Studies from more than 20 transmission pairs show that a severe genetic bottleneck occurs during transmission, with a single genetic variant initiating infection in the new host. Studies are ongoing to define the unique biological and structural properties of the transmitted virus with the goal of targeting these variants with vaccines. We are also investigating how HIV-1 adapts over time to cellular and humoral immune pressures as it is transmitted from one immunogenetic environment to another. These studies will provide keys to the mechanisms HIV uses to evade the immune response of a newly infected host.

    Honors / Awards:

    Ohio State University, Distinguished Research Career Award, 2004

    Georgia Research Alliance Eminent Scholar, 2004

    University of Alabama at Birmingham, Distinguished Faculty Lecturer Award, 2002

    Senior Fellowship, Fogarty International, 1994 - 1995

    National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Merit Award for Structure/Function Analysis of the HIV Env Gene Product, 1992 - 2002

    National Cancer Institute Merit Award for Genetics of Type D Retroviruses, 1991 - 2000

    National Cancer Institute Merit Award for Site Specific Mutagenesis in the Env Gene of Rous Sarcoma Virus, 1989 - 1997

    National Cancer Institute Research Career Development Award, 1980 - 1985

    Postdoctoral Fellow of the Damon Runyon Memorial Fund for Cancer Research, 1975

    Cancer Immunology Fellow of the Cancer Research Institute, New York, 1972

    Selected Publications:

    Published and Accepted Research Articles -

    Li, M., J. F. Salazar-Gonzalez, C. A. Derdeyn, L. Morris, C. Williamson, J. E. Robinson, J. M. Decker, Y. Li, M. G. Salazar, V. R. Polonis, K. Mlisana, S. A. Karim, K. Hong, K. M. Greene, M. Bilska, J. Zhou, S. Allen, E. Chomba, J. Mulenga, C. Vwalika, F. Gao, M. Zhang, B. T. Korber, E. Hunter, B. H. Hahn, and D. C. Montefiori. 2006. Genetic and Neutralization Properties of Acute and Early Subtype C Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Molecular env Clones from Heterosexually Acquired Infections in Southern Africa. J Virol.

    Micoli, K. J., O. Mamaeva, S. C. Piller, J. L. Barker, G. Pan, E. Hunter, and J. M. McDonald. 2006. Point mutations in the C-terminus of HIV-1 gp160 reduce apoptosis and calmodulin binding without affecting viral replication. Virology 344:468-79.

    Li, B., J. M. Decker, R. W. Johnson, F. Bibollet-Ruche, X. Wei, J. Mulenga, S. Allen, E. Hunter, B. H. Hahn, G. M. Shaw, J. L. Blackwell, and C. A. Derdeyn. 2006. Evidence for potent autologous neutralizing antibody titers and compact envelopes in early infection with subtype C human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J Virol 80:5211-8.

    Johnson, R. W., B. Li, S. Sunay, R. H. Moore, J. Mulenga, E. Hunter, S. Allen, J. L. Blackwell, and C. A. Derdeyn. 2006. Real-time PCR quantitation of subtype C HIV DNA in a Zambian discordant couple cohort. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 22:438-44.

    Ulbrich, P., S. Haubova, M. V. Nermut, E. Hunter, M. Rumlova, and T. Ruml. 2006. Distinct roles for nucleic acid in in vitro assembly of purified Mason-Pfizer monkey virus CANC proteins. J Virol 80:7089-99.

    Decker, J. M., F. Bibollet-Ruche, X. Wei, S. Wang, D. N. Levy, W. Wang, E. Delaporte, M. Peeters, C. A. Derdeyn, S. Allen, E. Hunter, M. S. Saag, J. A. Hoxie, B. H. Hahn, P. D. Kwong, J. E. Robinson, and G. M. Shaw. 2005. Antigenic conservation and immunogenicity of the HIV coreceptor binding site. J Exp Med 201:1407-19.

    Song, C., K. Micoli, H. Bauerova, I. Pichova, and E. Hunter. 2005. Amino acid residues in the cytoplasmic domain of the Mason-Pfizer monkey virus glycoprotein critical for its incorporation into virions. J Virol 79:11559-68.

    Song, C., K. Micoli, and E. Hunter. 2005. Activity of the Mason-Pfizer monkey virus fusion protein is modulated by single amino acids in the cytoplasmic tail. J Virol 79:11569-79.

    Bauerova-Zabranska, H., J. Stokrova, K. Strisovsky, E. Hunter, T. Ruml, and I. Pichova. 2005. The RNA binding G-patch domain in retroviral protease is important for infectivity and D-type morphogenesis of Mason-Pfizer monkey virus. J Biol Chem 280:42106-12.

    Burton, D. R., R. C. Desrosiers, R. W. Doms, M. B. Feinberg, R. C. Gallo, B. Hahn, J. A. Hoxie, E. Hunter, B. Korber, A. Landay, M. M. Lederman, J. Lieberman, J. M. McCune, J. P. Moore, N. Nathanson, L. Picker, D. Richman, C. Rinaldo, M. Stevenson, D. I. Watkins, S. M. Wolinksky, and J. A. Zack. 2004. Public health. A sound rationale needed for phase III HIV-1 vaccine trials. Science 303:316

    Stansell, E., Tytler, E., Walker, M., and HUNTER, E. (2004) An early stage of Mason-Pfizer monkey virus budding is regulated by the hydrophobicity of the Gag matrix domain core. J. Virol. 78(10):5023-5031.

    Celma, C.C., J. M. Manrique, E. Hunter, J. L. Affranchino, and S. A. Gonzalez. 2004. Second-site revertants of a simian immunodeficiency virus gp41 mutant defective in envelope glycoprotein incorporation. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 20:733-41.

    Heil, M.L., J. M. Decker, J. N. Sfakianos, G. M. Shaw, E. HUNTER, and C. A. Derdeyn (2004) Baseline sensitivity of HIV-1 to the fusion inhibitors enfuvirtide and T-649 is impacted by sequences outside of the gp41 N-terminal heptad repeat. J.Virol. 78: 7582-7589.

    Derdeyn, C. A., Decker, J. M., Bibollet-Ruche, F., Mokili, J. L., Muldoon, M., Denham, S. A., Heil, M. L., Kasolo, F., Musonda, R., Hahn, B. H. Shaw, G. M., Korber, B. T., Allen, S., and HUNTER, E. (2004) Envelope-constrained, neutralization-sensitive HIV-1 after heterosexual transmission. Science. 303(5666):2019-2022.

    Curlee, K.V., Hong, J.S., Claney, J.P., HUNTER, E., Berdiev, B., Benos, D., Sommerfelt, M.A., Sorscher, E.J., and Sakalian, M. (2003) Membrane transplantation corrects integral membrane protein defects. J. Mol. Med. 81:511-520.

    Sommerfelt, M.A., Harkestad, N., and HUNTER, E. (2003) The endogenous langur type D retrovirus PO-1-Lu and its exogenous counterparts in macaque and langur monkeys. Virology. 315:275-282.

    Sfakianos, Jeffrey N. and HUNTER, E. (2003) Mason-Pfizer monkey virus capsid transport is mediated by Env/Gag interactions at the pericentriolar recycling endosome. Traffic. 4(10):671-680. (Article featured on cover.)

    Song, Chisu, Dubay, Susan R., and HUNTER, E. (2003) A tyrosine motif in the cytoplasmic domain of Mason-Pfizer monkey virus is essential for the incorporation of glycoprotein into virions. J. Virol. 77(9):5192-5200.

    Lin, Xiaoxu, Derdeyn, C.A., Blumenthal, R., West, J., and HUNTER, E. (2003) Progressive truncations C-terminal to the membrane-spanning domain of SIV Env reduce fusogenicity and increase concentration dependence of Env for fusion. J. Virol. 77(12):7067-7077.

    Song, Chisu and HUNTER, E. (2003) Variable sensitivity to substitutions in the N-terminal heptad repeat of Mason-Pfizer monkey virus transmembrane protein. J. Virol. 77(14):7779-7785.

    Sfakianos, Jeffrey N., LaCasse, R.A., and HUNTER, E. (2003) The Mason-Pfizer monkey virus cytoplasmic targeting-retention signal directs nascent Gag polypeptides to a pericentriolar region of the cell. Traffic. 4(10):660-670. (Article featured on cover.)

    Manrique, J.M., Celma, C.C.P., HUNTER, E., Affranchino, J.L., and Gonzalez, S.A. (2003) Positive and negative modulation of virus infectivity and envelope glycoprotein incorporation into virions by amino acid substitutions at the N terminus of the simian immunodeficiency virus matrix protein. J. Virol. 77(20):10881-10888.

    Reeves, J. D., Gallo, S. A., Ahmad, N., Miamidian, J. L., Harvey, P. E., Sharron, M., Pohlmann, S., Sfakianos, J. N., Derdeyn, C. A., Blumenthal, R., HUNTER, E., and Doms, R. W. (2002). Sensitivity of HIV-1 to entry inhibitors correlates with envelope/coreceptor affinity, receptor density, and fusion kinetics. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99(25):16249-16254.

    Yasuda, J., HUNTER, E., Nakao, M., and Shida, H. (2002) Functional involvement of a novel Nedd4-like ubiquitin ligase on retrovirus budding. EMBO Reports. 3(7):636-640.

    Zabransky, A., HUNTER, E., and Sakalian, M. (2002) Identification of a minimal HIV-1 Gag domain sufficient for self-association. Virology. 294:141-150.

    Ochsenbauer-Jambor, C., Delos, S.E., Accavitti, M.A., White, J.M., and HUNTER, E. (2002) Novel monoclonal antibody directed at the receptor binding site on the avian sarcoma and leukosis virus Env complex. J. Virol. 76(15):7518-7527.

    Nermut, M.V., Bron, P. Thomas, D., Rumlova, M., Ruml T., and HUNTER, E. (2002) Molecular organization of Mason-Pfizer monkey virus capsids assembled from Gag polyprotein in Escherichia coli. J. Virol. 76(9):4321-4330.

    West, J.T., Weldon, S.K., Wyss, S., Lin, X., Yu, Q., Thali, M., and HUNTER, E. (2002) Mutation of the dominant endocytosis motif in HIV-1 gp41 can complement matrix mutations without increasing Env incorporation. J. Virol. 76(7):3338-3349.

    Trask, S.A., Derdeyn, C.A., Fideli, U., Chen, Y., Meleth, S., Kasolo, F., Musonda, R., HUNTER, E., Gao, F., Allen, S., and Hahn, B.H. (2002) Molecular epidemiological of HIV-1 transmission in a heterosexual cohort of discordant couples in Zambia. J.Virol. 76(1):397-405.

    Sakalian, M., Dittmer, S.S., Gandy, A. D., Rapp, N.D., Zabranski, A., and HUNTER, E. (2002) The Mason-Pfizer monkey virus internal scaffold domain enables t in vitro assembly of human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 Gag. J. Virol. 76(21):10811-10820.

    Parker, S. D. and HUNTER, E. (2001) Activation of the Mason-Pfizer monkey virus protease within immature capsids in vitro. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 98(25):14631-14636

    Li, H., Haviv, Y.S., Derdeyn, C.A., Lam, J., Coolidge, C., HUNTER, E., Curiel, D.T., and Blackwell, J.L. (2001) Human immunodeficiency virus type 1-mediated syncytium formation is compatible with adenovirus replication and facilitates efficient dispersion of viral gene products and de novo-synthesized virus. Hum. Gene Ther. 12:2155-2165.

    Guesdon, F.M.J., Greatorex, J., Rhee, S.R., Fisher, R., HUNTER, E., and Lever, A.M.L. (2001) Sequences in the 5' leader of Mason-Pfizer monkey virus which affect viral particle production and genomic RNA packaging: development of MPMV packaging cell lines. Virology 288:81-88.

    Manrique, J.M., Celma, C.C.P., Affranchino, J.L., HUNTER, E., and Gonzalez, S.A. (2001) Small variations in the length of the cytoplasmic domain of the simian immunodeficiency virus transmembrane protein drastically affect envelope incorporation and virus entry. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses 17(17):1615-1624.

    Parker, S.D., Wall, J.S., and HUNTER, E. (2001) Analysis of Mason-Pfizer monkey virus Gag particles by scanning transmission electron microscopy. J. Virol. 75(19):9543-9548.

    Derdeyn, C.A., Decker, J.M., Sfakianos, J.N., Zhang, Z., O'Brien, W.A., Ratner, L., Shaw, G.M., and HUNTER, E. (2001) Sensitivity of HIV-1 to fusion inhibitors targeted to the gp41 first heptad repeat involves distinct regions of gp41 and is consistently modulated by gp120 interactions with the coreceptor. J. Virol. 75(18) 8605-8614.

    West, J.T., Johnston, P.B., Dubay, S.R., and HUNTER, E. (2001) Mutations within the putative membrane-spanning domain of the simian immunodeficiency virus transmembrane glycoprotein define the minimal requirements for fusion, incorporation, and infectivity. J. Virol. 75(20) 9601-9612.

    Hong, S., Choi, G., Park, S., Chung, A-S., HUNTER, Eric, and Rhee, S.S. (2001) Type D retrovirus Gag polyprotein interacts with the cytosolic chaperonin TriC. J. Virol. 75(6):2526-2534.

    Celma, C.C.P., Manrique, J.M., Affranchino, J.L., HUNTER, E., and Gonzalez, S.A. (2001) Domains in the simian immunodeficiency virus gp41 cytoplasmic tail required for envelope incorporation into particles. Virology 283:253-261.

    Ochsenbauer-Jambor, C., Miller, D.C., Roberts, C.R., Rhee, S.S., and HUNTER, E. (2001) Palmitoylation of the Rous Sarcoma virus TM glycoprotein is required for protein stability and virus infectivity. J. Virol. 75(23):11544-11554.

    Piller, Sabine C., Dubay, J.W., Derdeyn, C.A., and HUNTER, E. (2000) Mutational analysis of conserved domains within the cytoplasmic tail of gp-41 from HIV-1: Effects on glycoprotein incorporation and infectivity. J. Virol. 74(24):11717-11723.

    Derdeyn, Cynthia A., Decker, J.M., Sfakianos, J.N., Wu, X, O'Brien, W.A., Ratner, L., Kappes, J.C., Shaw, G.M., and HUNTER, E., (2000) Sensitivity of HIV-1 to the fusion inhibitor T-20 is modulated by coreceptor specificity defined by the V3 loop of gp120. J. Virol. 74(18):8358-8367.

    Rumlova-Klikova, M., HUNTER, E., Nermut, M.V., Pichova, I., and Ruml, T. (2000) Analysis of Mason-Pfizer monkey virus Gag domains required for capsid assembly in bacteria: role of the N-terminal proline residue of CA in directing the particle shape. J. Virol. 74(18), 8452-8459

    Yasuda, J. and HUNTER, E. (2000) Role of matrix protein in the type-D retrovirus replication cycle: importance of the arginine residue at position 55. Virol. 268:533-538.

    Parker, S. and HUNTER, E. (2000) A cell-line-specific defect in the intracellular transport and release of assembled retroviral capsids. J. Virol. 74(2):784-795.

    Ochsenbauer, C., Dubay, S.R., and HUNTER, E. (2000) The Rous Sarcoma virus Env glycoprotein contains a highly conserved motif homologous to tyrosine-based endocytosis signals and displays an unusual internalization phenotype. Mol. Cell. Biol. 20(1)249-260.

    Radding, W., Williams, J.P., McKenna, M.A., Tummala, R., HUNTER, E., Tytler, E.M., and McDonald, J.M. (2000) Calmodulin and HIV type 1: interactions with Gag and Gag products. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 16(15):1519-25.

    Salzwedel, K., West, John T., and HUNTER, E. (1999) A conserved tryptophan-rich motif in the membrane-proximal region of the HIV-I gp41 ectodomain is important for Env-mediated fusion and virus infectivity. J. Virol. 73(3):2469-2480.

    Choi, G., Park, S., Choi, B., Hong, S., Lee, J., HUNTER, E., and Rhee, S. (1999) Identification of a cytoplasmic targeting/retention signal in a retroviral Gag polyprotein. J. Virol. 73(7):5431-5437.

    Sakalian, M. and HUNTER, E. (1999) Separate assembly and transport domains within the Gag precursor of Mason-Pfizer monkey virus. J. Virol. 73(10):8073-8082.

    Rumlova-Klikova, M., Pichova, I., HUNTER, E., and Ruml, T. (1999) Conditions resulting in formation of properly assembled retroviral capsids within inclusion bodies of Escherichia coli. Collect. Czech. Chem. Commun. 64:1348-1356.

    Munoz-Barrosa, I., Salzwedel, K., HUNTER, E., and Blumenthal, R. (1999) Role of the membrane proximal domain in the initial stages of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein-mediated membrane fusion. J. Virol. 73(7):6089-6092.

    Harrison, G.P., Mayo, M.S., HUNTER, E., and Lever, A.M.L. (1998) Pausing of reverse transcriptase on retroviral RNA templates is influenced by secondary structures both 5' and 3 of the catalytic site. Nucleic Acids Research. 26(14):3433-3442.

    Kilby, J.M., Hopkins, S., Venetta, T.M., DiMassimo, B., Cloud, G.A., Lee, J.Y., Alldredge, L., HUNTER, E., Lambert, D., Bolognesi, D., Matthews, T., Johnson, M.R., Nowak, M.A., Shaw, G.M., and Saag, M.S. (1998) Potent suppression of HIV-1 replication in humans by T-20, a peptide inhibitor of gp41-mediated virus entry. Nature Medicine. 4(11):1302-1307.

    Pichova, I., Zabransky, A., Kost'alova, I., Hruskova-Heidingsfeldova, O., Andreansky, M., HUNTER, E. and Ruml, T. (1998) Analysis of autoprocessing of Mason-Pfizer monkey virus proteinase in vitro. Three active forms of proteinase. Adv Exp Med Biol. 436:105-8.

    Zabransky, A., Andreansky, M., Hruskova-Heidingsfeldova, O., Havlicek, V., HUNTER, E., Ruml, T., and Pichova I. (1998) Three active forms of aspartic proteinase from Mason-Pfizer monkey virus. Virology. 245:250-56.

    Salzwedel, K., West, J.T., Jr., Mulligan, M.J., and HUNTER, E. (1998) Retention of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 envelope glycoprotein in the endoplasmic reticulum does not redirect virus assembly from the plasma membrane. J. Virol. 72(9):7523-7531.

    Harrison, G.P., Miele, G., HUNTER, E., and Lever, A.M.L. (1998) Functional analysis of the core Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 packaging signal in a permissive cell line. J Virol. 72(7):5886-5896.

    Yasuda, J. and HUNTER, E. (1998) A proline-rich motif (PPPY) in the Gag polyprotein of Mason-Pfizer monkey virus plays a maturation-independent role in virion release. J Virol. 72(5):4095-4103.

    Weldon, Jr., R.A., Parker, W.B., Sakalian, M., and HUNTER, E. (1998) Type D retrovirus capsid assembly and release are active events requiring ATP. J Virol. 72(4):3098-3106.

    Conte, M.R., Klikova, M., HUNTER, E., Ruml, T. and Matthews S. (1997) The three-dimensional solution structure of the matrix protein from the type D retrovirus, the Mason-Pfizer monkey virus, and implications for the morphology of retroviral assembly. EMBO J. 16(19):5819-26.

    Einfeld, D.A. and HUNTER, E. (1997) Mutational analysis of the oligomer assembly domain in the transmembrane subunit of the Rous sarcoma virus glycoprotein. J Virol. 71(3):2383-2389.

    Wu, X., Liu, H., Xiao, H., Conway, J.A., HUNTER, E., and Kappes, J.C. (1997) Functional RT and IN incorporated into HIV-1 particles independently of the Gag/Pol precursor protein. EMBO Journal 16(16):5113-22.

    HUNTER, E. (1996) Perspective: Research highlights at the University of Alabama at Birmingham Center for AIDS Research. Paradigm shifts, translational research and CFARs. AIDS Res Hum Retro 12(14):1301-1303.

    Pan, Z., Radding, W., Zhou, T., HUNTER, E., Mountz, J., McDonald, J.M. (1996) Role of calmodulin in HIV-potentiated Fas-mediated apoptosis. Amer. J. Path. 149(3):903-10.

    Radding, W., Pan, A.Q., HUNTER, E., Johnston, P., Williams, J.P., and McDonald, J. (1996) Expression of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein alters cellular calmodulin. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 218(1):192-197.

    Sakalian, M., Parker, S.D., Weldon Jr., R.A., and HUNTER, E. (1996) Synthesis and assembly of retrovirus precursors into immature capsids in vitro. J. Virol. 70(6):3706-3715.

    Harrison, G.P., HUNTER, E., and Lever, A.M.L. (1995) Secondary structure model of the Mason-Pfizer Monkey Virus 5' leader sequence: Identification of a structural motif common to a variety of retroviruses. J. Virol. 69(4):2175-2186.

    Hruskova-Heidingsfeldova, O., Andreansky, M., Fabry, M., Blaha, I., Strop, P., and HUNTER, E. (1995) Cloning, bacterial expression and characterization of the Mason -Pfizer Monkey Virus proteinase. J. Biol. Chem. 270(25):15053-15058.

    Dubay, J.W., Roberts, S.J., Shin, H-J., and HUNTER, E. (1995) Analysis of the cleavage site of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 glycoprotein: Requirement of cleavage for glycoprotein incorporation. J. Virol. 69(8):4675-4682.

    Klikova, M., Rhee, S.S., HUNTER, E., and Ruml, T. (1995) Efficient in vivo and in vitro assembly of retroviral capsids from precursor proteins expressed in bacteria. J. Virol. 69(2):1093-1098.

    Johnston, P., Dong, J.-Y., and HUNTER, E. (1995) Transport of a lysosomally-targetted Rous sarcoma virus envelope glycoprotein involves transient expression on the cell surface. Virology 206(1):353-361.

    Bernstein, H.B., Tucker, S.P., HUNTER, E., Schutzbach, J.S., and Compans, R.W. (1994) Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 envelope glycoprotein is modified by O-linked oligosaccharides. J. Virol. 68(1):463-468.

    Bray, M., Prasad, S., Dubay, J.W., HUNTER, E., Jeang, K-T., Rekosh, D. and Hammarskjold, M-L. (1994) A small element from the Mason-Pfizer Monkey virus genome makes HIV-1 expression and replication rev-independent. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 91:1256-1260.

    Einfeld, D.A. and HUNTER, E. (1994) Expression of the TM protein of Rous sarcoma virus in the absence of SU shows that this domain is capable of oligomerization and intracellular transport. J. Virol. 68(4):2513-2520.

    Brody, B.A., Rhee, S.S., and HUNTER, E. (1994) Postassembly cleavage of a retroviral glycoprotein cytoplasmic domain removes a necessary incorporation signal and activates fusion activity. J. Virol. 68(7):4620-4627.

    Brody, B.A., Kimball, M.G., and HUNTER, E. (1994) Mutations within the transmembrane glycoprotein of Mason-Pfizer Monkey virus: Loss of SU-TM association and effects on infectivity. Virology 202(2):673-683.

    Andreansky, M. and HUNTER, E. (1994) Phagemid pSIT permits efficient in vitro mutagenesis and tightly controlled expression in E. coli. Biotechniques 16(4):626-633.

    Bernstein, H.B., Tucker, S.P., Kar, S.R., McPherson, S.A., McPherson, D.T., Dubay, J.W., Lebowitz, J., Compans, R.W., and HUNTER, E. (1994) Oligomerization of the hydrophobic HEPTAD repeat of gp41. J. Virol. 69(5):2745-2750.

    Wild, C., Dubay, J.W., Greenwell, T., Baird Jr., T., Oas, T., McDanal, C., HUNTER, E., and Matthews, T. (1994) The propensity for a leucine zipper-like domain of HIV-1 gp41 to form oligomers correlates with a role in virus-induced fusion rather than assembly of the glycoprotein complex. Proc. Natl. Acac. Sci. 91(26):12676-12680.

    Johnston, P.B., Dubay, J.W., and HUNTER, E. (1993) Truncations of SIV transmembrane protein confer expanded virus host range by removing a block to virus entry into cells. J. Virol. 67(6):3077-3086.

    Dong, J., and HUNTER, E. (1993) Analysis of retroviral assembly using a vaccinia/T7-polymerase complementation system. Virology 194:192-199.

    Peng, S., Sommerfelt, M.A., Logan, J., Huang, Z., Jilling, T., Kirk, K., HUNTER, E. and Sorscher, E. (1993) One step affinity isolation of recombinant protein using the baculovirus/insect cell expression system. Protein Expression and Purification. 4:95-100.

    Sommerfelt, M.A., Roberts, C.R., and HUNTER, E. (1993) Expression of Simian Type D retroviral (Mason-Pfizer Monkey Virus) capsids in insect cells using recombinant Baculovirus. Virology 192:298-306.

    Peng, S., Sommerfelt, M.A., Berta, G., Berry, A.K., Kirk, K.L., HUNTER, E., and Sorscher, E.J. (1993) Rapid purification of recombinant baculovirus using fluorescence activated cell sorting. Biotechniques. 14(2):274-277.

    Salzwedel, K., Johnston, P.B., Roberts, S.J., Dubay, J.W., and HUNTER, E. (1993) Expression and characterization of glycophospholipid-anchored Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 envelope glycoproteins. J. Virol. 67(9):5279-5288.

    Brody, B.A., Rhee, S.S., Sommerfelt, M.A., and HUNTER, E. (1992) A viral protease-mediated cleavage of the transmembrane glycoprotein of Mason Pfizer monkey virus can be suppressed by mutations within the matrix protein. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 89:3443-3447.

    Gallaher, W.R., Segrest, J.P., and HUNTER, E. (1992) Are fusion peptides really "sided" insertional helices? Letter to the Editor. Cell 70:531-532.

    Vile, R.G., Ali, M., HUNTER, E., and McClure, M.O. (1992) Identification of a generalised packaging sequence for D-type retroviruses and generation of a D-type retroviral vector. Virology 189:786-791.

    Sommerfelt, M.A., Rhee, S.S., and HUNTER, E. (1992) Importance of p12 protein in Mason-Pfizer monkey virus assembly and infectivity. J. Virol. 66(12):7005-7011.

    Dubay, J.W., Roberts, S.J., Hahn, B.H., and HUNTER, E. (1992) Truncation of the HIV-1 transmembrane glycoprotein cytoplasmic domain blocks virus infectivity. J. Virol. 66(11):6616-6625.

    Strambio de Castillia, C., and HUNTER, E. (1992) Mutational analysis of the major homology region of Mason-Pfizer Monkey Virus by use of saturation mutagenesis. J. Virol. 66(12): 7021-32.

    Dong, J., Roth, M.G., and HUNTER, E. (1992) A chimeric avian retrovirus containing the influenza hemagglutinin gene has an expanded host range. J. Virol. 66(12):7374-82.

    Sommerfelt, M.A., Petteway Jr., S.R., Dreyer, G. and HUNTER, E. (1992) Effect of retroviral proteinase inhibitors on MPMV maturation and TM glycoprotein cleavage. J. Virol. 66(7):4220-27.

    Dubay, J.W., Roberts, S.J., Brody, B. and HUNTER, E. (1992) Mutations in the Leucine Zipper region of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 transmembrane glycoprotein affect fusion and infectivity. J. Virol. 66(8): 4748-4756.

    Dong, J.Y., Dubay, J, Perez, L. and HUNTER, E. (1992) Mutations within the proteolytic cleavage site of the Rous Sarcoma Virus glycoprotein define a requirement for dibasic residues for intracellular cleavage. J. Virol. 66:865-874.

    Elder, J.H., Lerner, D.L., Hasselkus-Light, C.S., Fontenot, D.J., HUNTER, E., Luciw, P.A., Montelaro, R.C., and Phillips, T.R. (1992) Distinct subsets of retroviruses encode dUPTase. J. Virol. 66(3):1791-1794.

    Ivanoff, L., Morris, J.F., Gutshall, L., Sternberg, E.J., Matthews, T.J., Petteway, S.R., Dubay, J., Roberts, S.J., and HUNTER, E. (1992) The V3 loop region of the HIV-1 gp120 envelope protein is essential for virus infectivity. Virology 187: 423-432.

    McPherson, D.T., Morrow, C., Minehan, D., Wu, J., HUNTER, E., and Urry, D.W. (1992) Production and purification of a recombinant elastomeric polypeptide, G-(VPGVG)19-VPGV from E. coli. Biotechnology Progress. 8:347-352.

    Brody, B.A. and HUNTER, E. (1992) Mutations within the env gene of MPMV: Effects on protein transport and SU/TM association. J Virol. 66(6):3466-3475.

    Brody, B.A., HUNTER, E., Lasarow, R., Kluge, J.D., Gardner, M. and Marx, P. (1992) Protection of macaques against infection with Simian Type D Retrovirus (SRV-1) by immunization with recombinant vaccinia virus expressing the envelope glycoproteins of either SRV-1 or Mason Pfizer Monkey Virus (SRV-3). J Virol. 66(6):3950-3954.

    Owens, R.J., Dubay, J.W., HUNTER, E., and Compans, R.W. (1991) Human immunodeficiency virus envelope protein determines the site of virus release in polarized epithelial cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88:3987-3991.

    Bennett, R.P., Rhee, S., Craven, R.C., HUNTER, E., and Wills, J.W. (1991) Amino acids encoded downstream of are not required by Rous Sarcoma virus protease during Gag-mediated assembly. J. Virol. 65(1):272-280.

    Rhee, S.S. and HUNTER, E. (1991) Amino acid substitutions within the matrix protein of type D retroviruses affect assembly, transport, and membrane association of a capsid. The EMBO J. 10(3):535-546.

    Dubay J.W., Shin, H.-J., Dong, J.-Y., Roberts, S. and HUNTER, E. (1991) Structure-function analysis of the HIV glycoprotein. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 303:39-46.

    Desrosiers, R.C. and HUNTER, E. (1991) AIDS Biosafety. Letter to the Editor, Science 252:1231.

    Rhee, S., Hui, H. and HUNTER, E. (1990) Preassembled capsids of D-type retroviruses contain a signal sufficient for targeting specifically to the plasma membrane. J. Virol. 64(8):3844-3852.

    Rhee, S. and HUNTER, E. (1990) Structural role of the matrix protein of D-type retroviruses in -polyprotein stability and capsid assembly. J. Virol. 64(9)):4383-4389.

    Rhee, S. and HUNTER, E. (1990) A single amino acid substitution within the matrix protein of a type D retrovirus converts its morphogenesis to that of a type C retrovirus. Cell. 63:77-86.

    Hearing, J., HUNTER, E., Rodgers, L., Gething, M-J. and Sambrook, J. (1989). Isolation of Chinese hamster ovary cell lines temperature-conditional for the cell-surface expression of integral membrane glycoproteins. J. Cell Biol. 108:339-353.

    Einfeld, D. and HUNTER, E. (1988). Oligomeric structure of a prototype retrovirus glycoprotein. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 85:8688-8692.

    Perez, L. and HUNTER, E. (1987). Mutations within the proteolytic cleavage site of the Rous sarcoma virus glycoprotein precursor block processing to gp85 and gp37. J. Virol. 61:1609-1614.

    Rhee, S. S. and HUNTER, E. (1987). Myristylation is required for intracellular transport but not for assembly of D-type retrovirus capsids. J. Virol. 61:1045-1053.

    Thielan, B. J, HUNTER, E., Desrosiers, R. C. and Ratner, L. (1987) Trans-activation of long terminal repeat sequence-mediated gene expression is not a property of type D retrovirus replication. J. Gen. Virol. 2265-2270.

    Perez, L., Davis, G. L. and HUNTER, E. (1987). Mutants of the Rous Sarcoma Virus envelope glycoprotein that lack the transmembrane anchor and/or cytoplasmic domains: Analysis of Intracellular transport and assembly into virions. J. Virol. 61:2981-2988.

    Davis, G.L. and HUNTER, E. (1987). A charged amino acid substitution within the transmembrane domain of the Rous sarcoma virus envelope glycoprotein affects surface expression but not intracellular transport. J. Cell Biol. 105:1191-1203.

    Perez, L., Wills, J. W. and HUNTER, E. (1987). Expression of the Rous sarcoma virus env gene from a simian virus 40 late-region replacement vector: Effects of upstream initiation codons. J. Virol. 61:1276-1281.

    Chatterjee, S. and HUNTER, E. (1987). Recombinant human interferons inhibit replication of Mason-Pfizer monkey virus in primate cells. Virology 157:548-551.

    Bradac, J., Chatterjee, S., and HUNTER, E. (1986). Polypeptides of Mason-Pfizer monkey virus. II. Synthesis and Processing of the env gene products. Virology 150:491-502.

    Lerche, N. W., Osborn, K. G., Marx, P. A., Prahalada, S., Maul, D. H., Lowenstine, L. J., Munn, R. J., Bryant, M. L., Henrickson, R. V., Arthur, L. O., Gilden, R. V., Barker, C. S., HUNTER, E. and Gardner, M. B. (1986). Inapparent carriers of simian aids type D retrovirus and disease transmission with saliva. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 77:489-496.

    Barker, C. S., Pickel, M., Tainsky, M. and HUNTER, E. (1986). Molecular cloning of the Mason-Pfizer monkey virus genome: Cloning of integrated and unintegrated proviral DNAs and a molecular comparison and B, C and D type retroviruses. Virology 153:201-214.

    Bradac, J., and HUNTER, E. (1986). Polypeptides of Mason-Pfizer Monkey virus. III. Translational order of proteins on the and env gene specified precursor polypeptides. Virology 150:503-508.

    Sonigo, P., Barker, C., HUNTER, E. and Wain-Hobson, S. (1986). Nucleotide sequence of Mason-Pfizer Monkey virus: An Immunosuppressive D-type retrovirus. Cell 45:375-385.

    Bryant, M., Gardner, M., Marx, P., Maul, D., Lerche, N., Osborn, K., Lowenstine, L., Bogden, A., Arthur, L. and HUNTER, E. (1986). Immunodeficiency in rhesus monkeys associated with the original Mason-Pfizer monkey virus. J. Natl. Cancer Inst., 77:957-965.

    Hardwick, J. M., Shaw, K., Wills, J. W., and HUNTER, E. (1986). Amino-terminal deletion mutants of the Rous sarcoma virus glycoprotein do not block signal peptide cleavage, but can block exocytosis. J. Cell Biology 103:829-838.

    Chatterjee, S., HUNTER, E, and Whitley, R. (1985). Effect of cloned human interferons on protein synthesis and morphogenesis of Herpes Simplex virus. J. Virol. 56:419-425.

    Barker, C., Wills, J., Bradac, J., and HUNTER, E. (1985). Molecular cloning of the Mason-Pfizer monkey virus genome: Characterization and cloning of subgenomic fragments. Virology 142:223-240.

    Chatterjee, S., Bradac, J., and HUNTER, E. (1985). A rapid screen ing procedure for the isolation of nonconditional replicatin mutans of Mason-Pfizzer monkey virus: Identification of a mutant defect in pol. Virology 141:65-76

    Desrosiers, R. C., Daniel, M. D., Butler, C. V., Schmidt, D. K., Letvin, N. L., Hunt, R. D., King, N. W., Barker, C. S., HUNTER, E. (1985). Retrovirus D/New England and Its Relation to Mason-Pfizer Monkey virus. J. Virol. 54:552-560.

    Marx, P. A., Osborn, K. G., Maul, D. H., Lerche, N. W., Henrickson, R. V. Shiigi, S. M., Wilson, B. J., Malley, A., Olson, L. C., Arthur, L. O., Gilden, R. V., Barker, C. S., HUNTER, E., Munn, R. J., Bryant, M. L., Heidecker, G., Gardner, M. (1985). Isolation of a new strain of SAIDS type-D retroviruses from Celebes Black Macaques (Macaca Nigra) with immune deficiency and retroperitoneal fibromatotosis. J. Virol. 56:571-578.

    Wills, J. W., Srinivas, R. V., and HUNTER, E. (1984). Mutations of the Rous sarcoma virus env gene that affects the transport and subcellular localization of the glycoprotein products. J. Cell Biol. 99:2011-2023.

    Chatterjee, S., Lakeman, A. D., Whitley, R. J., and HUNTER, E. (1984). Effect of cloned and human interferons on the replication of an cell fusion induced by Herpes Simplex virus. Virus Res. 1:81-87.

    Bradac, J., Chatterjee, S., and HUNTER, E. (1984). Polypeptides of Mason-Pfizer Monkey virus: I. Synthesis and processing of the gene products. Virology 138:260-275.

    Wills, J. W., Hardwick, J. M., Shaw, K., and HUNTER, E. (1983). Alterations in the transport and processing of RSV envelope glycoproteins mutated in the signal and anchor regions. J. Cell Biochem. 23:81-94.

    HUNTER, E., Hill, E., Hardwick, M., Bhown, A., Schwartz, D., and Tizard, R. (1983). Complete Sequence of the Rous Sarcoma virus env gene: Identification of structural and functional regions of its product. J. Virol. 46:920-936.

    HUNTER, E., Bennett, J. C., Bhown, A., Pepinsky, R. B., and Vogt, V. M. (1983). Amino terminal amino acid sequence of p10, the fifth polypeptide of avian sarcoma and leukemia viruses. J. Virol. 45:885-888.

    Bhown, A. S., Bennett, J. C., Cornelius, T. W., and HUNTER, E. (1983). Exclusive use of high pressure liquid chromatography for the determination of the complete amino acid sequence of the 12K fragment of avian sarcoma virus structural protein p27. J. Liq. Chrom. 6(2):249-258.

    Chatterjee, S., Cheung, H. C., and HUNTER, E. (1982). Interferon inhibits Sendai virus-induced cell fusion - an effect on cell membrane fluidity. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 79:835-839.

    Chatterjee, S., Bradac, J., and HUNTER, E. (1982). Effect of monensin on Mason-Pfizer Monkey virus glycoprotein synthesis. J. Virol. 44:1003-1012.

    Chatterjee, S., Bradac, J., and HUNTER, E. (1981). Effect of tunicamycin on cell fusion induced by Mason-Pfizer monkey virus. J. Virol. 38:770.

    Hardwick, J. M., and HUNTER, E. (1981). Rous sarcoma virus mutant LA3382 is defective in virion glycoprotein assembly. J. Virol. 40:752-761.

    Bhown, A. S., Bennett, J. C., Mole, J. E., and HUNTER, E. (1981). Purification and characterization of the gene products of avian type C-retroviruses by high pressure liquid chromatography. Anal. Biochem. 112:128.

    Bhown, A. S., Bennett, J. C., and HUNTER, E. (1980). Alignment of the peptides derived from acid catalysed cleavage of an aspartylprolyl bond in the major internal structural polypeptide of avian retroviruses. J. Biol. Chem. 255:6965

    Chatterjee, S., and HUNTER, E. (1980). Inhibition of Mason-Pfizer monkey virus-induced syncytium formation in normal human cells by homologous interferon. Virology. 104:487-490.

    Chatterjee, S., and HUNTER, E. (1980). Fusion of normal primate cells: A common biological property of the 'D' type retroviruses. Virology 107:100-108.

    Vogt, P. K., Hayman, M., HUNTER, E., and Duesberg, P. H. (1979). A non-conditional replication-defective mutant of the Schmidt-Ruppin strain of Rous Sarcoma virus. Virology 95:421-433.

    Miller, G. G., Blair, D. G., HUNTER, E., Mousa, G. Y., and Trevithick, J. R. (1979). Differentiation of rat lens epithelial cells in tissue culture (III) functions in vitro of a transformed rat lens epithelial cell line. Develop., Growth and Differ., 21:19-27.

    Barbacid, M., HUNTER, E., and Aaronson, S. A. (1979). Avian reticuloendotheliosis viruses: Evolutionary linkage with mammalian type C retroviruses. J. Virol. 30:508-514.

    Stohrer, R., and HUNTER, E.(1979). Inhibition of Rous Sarcoma virus replication by 2-deoxyglucose and tunicamycin: Identification of an unglycosylated env gene product. J. Virol. 32:412-419.

    Chatterjee, S., and HUNTER, E. (1979). The characterization of Mason-Pfizer monkey virus-induced cell fusion. Virology 95:421-433.

    HUNTER, E., Bhown, A. S., and Bennett, J. C. (1978). Amino-terminal amino acid sequence of the major structural polypeptides of avian retroviruses: Sequence homology between reticuloendotheliosis virus p30 and p30s of mammalian retroviruses. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 75:2708-2712.

    Bister, K., Varmus, H. E., Stavnezer, E., HUNTER, E., and Vogt, P. K. (1977). Biological and biochemistry studies on the inactivation of avian oncoviruses by ultraviolet irradiation. Virology 77:689-707.

    Blair, D. G., Mason, W. S., HUNTER, E., and Vogt, P. K. (1976). Temperature-sensitive mutants of avian sarcoma viruses: Genetic recombination between multiple or coordinate mutants and avian leukemia viruses. Virology 75:48.

    Verma, I., Varmus, H. E., and HUNTER, E. (1976). Characterization of "Early" Temperature-Sensitive mutants of avian sarcoma viruses: Biological properties, thermolability of reverse transcriptase in vitro and synthesis of viral DNA. Virology 74:16.

    Hayman, M. J., HUNTER, E., and Vogt, P. K. (1976). Inhibition of avian sarcoma virus replication by glucosamine: A specific effect on the synthesis and processing of viral proteins. Virology 71:402.

    HUNTER, E., Hayman, M. J., Rongey, R. W., and Vogt, P. K. (1976). An avian sarcoma virus mutant that is temperature sensitive for virion assembly. Virology 69:35.

    HUNTER, E. and Vogt. P. K. (1976). Temperature-sensitive mutants of avian sarcoma Genetic recombination with wild type sarcoma virus and physiological analyses of multiple mutants. Virology 69:23-24.

    Verma, I., and HUNTER, E. (1976). Reverse transcriptase is coded for by the viral RNA. Comparative Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, and Immunology of RNA Tumor Virus. Bibliotheca Haematologica 43:457.

    HUNTER, E., Friis, R. R., and Vogt, P. K. (1974). Inhibition of avian sarcoma virus replication by glucosamine. Virology 58:499-450.

    Friis, R. R. and HUNTER, E. (1973). A temperature sensitive mutant of Rous sarcoma virus that is defective for replication. Virology 53:479-483

    Negroni, G. and HUNTER, E. (1973). Rejection of polyoma virus-induced neoplasms in mice inoculated with complement and antiserum. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 51:265-268.

    HUNTER, E. and Negroni, G. (1972). Isolation in newborn mice of tumor cell variants from a polyoma-transformed non-malignant cell line. Europ. J. Cancer 8:107-109.

    Negroni, G. and HUNTER, E. (1971). Antigenic heterogeneity in cell populations of cloned polyoma virus induced tumor lines. Nature New Biol. 230:18-20.

    Book Chapters -

    HUNTER, E. (2001) Virus Assembly. In: Fields Virology, Fourth Edition. Eds. D.M. Knipe and P.M. Howley. Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA, Vol. 1, Chap. 8:171-197.

    HUNTER, E., Casey, J., Hahn, B., Hayami, M., Korber, B., Kurth, R., Neil, J., Rethwilm, A., Sonigo, P. and Stoye, J. (2000). Retroviridae. In: Virus Taxonomy. Seventh Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Eds. van Regenmortel, M.H.V., et al., London, San Diego: Academic Press, pp 369-387.