Pathology Faculty Member

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  • Contact Information:

    Emory Univ. Hospital
    Clinical Laboratories
    1364 Clifton Road, NE
    Atlanta, GA 30322
    404 712-8199 Phone

    For an expert Pathology consultation,
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    Howard M Gebel, PhD

    HLA and Transplantation

    Pathology & Laboratory Medicine

    Pathology Faculty Photo

    Other Appointments/Positions

    Professor, Emory University Hospital

    Co-Director, Histocompatibility & Immunogenetics Labs, Emory Medical Laboratory

    Pathology Division(s):
    Clinical Pathology

    Email Address:


    Bachelor of Science   General Biology, Univ. Illinois, Champaign, - 1973

    Doctor of Philosophy   Microbiology & Immunology, Univ. Missouri, Columbia, - 1976

    Research Interests:

    - Transplantation Immunology
    My main interest focuses on the clinical implications of donor specific HLA antibodies in renal transplant recipients.

    Clinical Focus:

    Dr. Robert Bray and I co-direct the HLA laboratory that provides histocompatibility testing for transplantation. My clinical focus revolves around increasing allocation of deceased donor kidneys to highly sensitized patients awaiting renal transplantation. My approach is to accurately identify and define HLA antibodies in such patients.

    Selected Publications:

    Published and Accepted Research Articles -

    Gebel HM and Bray RA. Approaches for transplanting the sensitized patient: biology versus pharmacology. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 23:2454-57, 2008.

    Saw CL, Bray RA and Gebel HM. Cytotoxicity and antibody binding by flow cytometry: A single assay to simultaneously assess two parameters. Cytometry 74B: 287-294,2008,.

    Bray RA, Nolen JDL, Larsen C, Pearson T, Newell KA, Kokko K, Guasch A, Tso P, Mendel JB and Gebel, HM. Transplanting the highly sensitized patient: The Emory Algorithm. Am J Transplant 6: 2307-2315, 2006.

    Gebel HM and Bray RA. Laboratory Assessment of HLA antibodies circa 2006. Making Sense of Sensitivity. Transplantation Reviews 20:189-194, 2006.

    Vieira CA, Agarwal A, Book BK, Sidner RA, Bearden CM, Gebel HM, Roggero AL, Fineberg NS, Taber T, Kraus MA and Pescovitz MD. Rituximab for reduction of anti-HLA antibodies in patients awaiting renal transplantation: 1. Safety, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacokinetics. Transplantation 77:542-8, 2004.

    Bray RA, Nickerson PW, Kerman RH and Gebel HM. Evolution of HLA antibody detection: technology emulating biology. Immunol Res. 29:41-54, 2004

    Gloor JM, DeGoey S, Ploeger N, Gebel H, Bray R, Moore SB, Dean PG and Stegall MD.Persistence of low levels of alloantibody after desensitization in crossmatch positive living donor kidney transplantationTransplantation 78:221-227, 2004.

    Bearden CM, Agarwal A, Book BK, Sidner RA, Gebel HM, Bray RA and Pescovitz MD. Pronase treatment facilitates alloantibody flow and cytotoxic crossmatching in the presence of Rituximab. Human Immunology 65:803-809, 2004.

    Gebel HM, Bray RA and Nickerson, PW. Pre-transplant assessment of donor-reactive, HLA-specific antibodies in renal transplantation: contraindication vs. risk. Am J Transplant 3:1488-500, 2003.

    Adamashvili I, Pressly T, Gebel H, Milford E, Wolf R, Mancini M, Sittg K, Ghali GE, Hall V, McDonald JC. Soluble HLA in saliva of patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases. Rheumatol Int. 22(2):71-6, 2002

    Gebel, HM, Harris, SB and Bray, RA. Conundrums with FlowPRA beads. Clin Transplant 16: 24-29, 2002

    Adamashvili, I, Fraser, PA, Milford, EL, Sittig, K, Gebel, H, Zibari, G, Pressly, T and McDonald JC. Soluble HLA-II expression in African-Americans. Inflammation Research 51:290-294, 2002

    Book BK, Agrawal, P, Dalla Vecchia,LK, Gebel, HM, Pescovitz, MD and Tambur, AR. Solid phase anti-HLA antibody detection methods and risk of renal allograft rejection in children. Transplant Proc 33(1-2)403-4, 2001

    Zibari GB, Boykin KN, Swaya DE, Abreo KD, Gebel HM, McDonald JC. Pancreatic transplantation and subsequent graft surveillance by pancreatic portal-enteric anastomosis and temporary venting jejunostomy. Ann Surg 233(5):639-44, 2001

    Gebel, HM, Bray, RA, Ruth, JA, Zibari, GB, McDonald, JC, Kahan, BD and Kerman H. FlowPRA to detect clinically relevant HLA antibodies. Transplant Proc 33(1-2):477, 2001.

    Bray, RA and Gebel , HM. Low resolution HLA class II typing for solid organ transplantation is inadequate. Transplant Proc 33(1-2):500, 2001

    Spear GT, Olinger GG, Saifuddin M, Gebel HM. Human antibodies to major histocompatibility complex alloantigens mediate lysis and neutralization of HIV-1 primary isolate virions in the presence of complement. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 26(2):103-10, 2001.

    Gebel H.M. and Bray R.A. Sensitization and Sensitivity. Defining the Unsensitized Patient. Transplantation 69:1370 4, 2000.

    Tambur, A.R., Ortegel, J.W., Morales, A., Klingemann, H., Gebel, H.M., Tharp, M.D. Extracorporeal photopheresis induces lymphocyte but not monocyte apoptosis. Transplantation Proceedings 32(4):pp. 747-8. 2000

    Tambur, A.R., Bray, R.A., Takemoto, S.K., Mancini,M., Costanzo, M.R., Kobashigawa, J.A., D'Amico, C.L., Kanter, K.R., Berg, A.., Vega, J.D., Smith, A.L., Roggero, A.L., Ortegel, J.W. Hosey,L.W. Cecka, J.M. and Gebel, H.M. Flow cytometric detection of class I and class II antibodies as a predictor of heart allograft rejection. Transplantation 70(7):1055-9, 2000

    Book Chapters -

    A CL Saw, D Heaney, RA Bray, HM Gebel. Relevance of Antibody Screening and Crossmatching in Solid Organ, Hematopoietic Stem Cells Transplantation and Blood Transfusion, Handbook of Human Immunology (Ed. By Mary Leffell et al), CRC Press, 2007.

    A Gebel, H.M., Pollack, M.S., and Bray, R.A. The HLA Technical Manual of the AABB (16th edition). Edited by John D. Roback, Martha Rae Combs, Brenda J. Grossman and Christoper D. Hillyer, pp 547-566, 2008.

    A Bray RA, Gebel HM, Ellis TM. Flow cytometric assessment of HLA alloantibodies in Current Protocols of Cytometry, Chapter 6, Unit 6.16, 2004.

    Dmowski, W.P., Braun, D. and Gebel, H. Endometriosis: Genetic and immunologic aspects. IN: Current concepts in endometriosis, edited by Chadha, D.R. and Buttram, V.C. Jr., pp 99 122, 1990.

    Dmowski, W.P., Gebel, H.M., and Rawlins, R.G. Immunological aspects of endometriosis. In, Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America, pp. 93 103, 1989

    Gottschalk, L.R., Bray, R.A., Landay, A.L. and Gebel, H.M. Phenotypic and functional analysis of expanded large granular lymphocyte (LGL) subpopulations in bone marrow transplant recipients. In, Natural Killer Cells and Host Defense. 5th International Natural Killer Cell Workshop, Hilton Head, SC. Basel, Karger, pp. 39 43, 1989.

    Bray, R.A., Landay, A.L., Gottschalk, L.R. and Gebel, H.M. NK cell lymphoproliferative patients as models to study NK cell heterogeneity and differentiation. In, Natural Killer Cells and Host Defense. 5th International Natural Killer Cell Workshop, Hilton Head, SC. Basel, Karger, pp. 270 274. 1989

    Torack, R.M., and Gebel, H.M.: Immunopathology of brain aging and senile dementia of the Alzheimer type (SDAT). In, Berlin symposium on brain aging. J. Cervos Navarro, Ed. Raven press, N.Y. 1982.

    Hoover, R.G., Gebel, H.M., Hickman, S., Rebbe, N., and Lynch, R.G.: T cells with surface membrane Fc receptors in myeloma. Proceedings of the International Workshop on Recent Advances and Future Trends in Myeloma, Montpeillier, France, 1981

    Lynch, R.G., Rohrer, J.W., Gebel, H.M., and Odermatt, B.: Regulation of murine myeloma cell growth and differentiation: Cellular and molecular mechanisms, and therapeutic implication. IN: Progress in Myeloma, edited by Potter, M. Elsevier North Holland, p.129 150, 1980.

    Lynch, R.G., Rohrer, J.W., Gebel, H.M., Odermatt, B.F., Hoover, R.G., Milburn, G.L., and Mordhorst, R.: Antigen binding myeloma cells: Monoclonal models of B cell differentiation. IN: Membranes, Receptors and Immune Responses, E.P. Cohen and H. Kohler, editors, Alan R. Liss, Inc., New York, NY, pp.325 344, 1980